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The challenges of designing low-jitter clocking are compounded by the power consumption requirements typically present in high bandwidth applications. Because advanced boards use a variety of high speed ICs including framers, mappers, processors, and FPGAs, they usually have complex power supply requirements with heavy load transitions. In these systems, the power supply rail is never entirely clean. High current requirements force system designers to use switching power supplies that generate noise. Often, the noise is broadband, ranging from 100 kHz to several megahertz, placing the noise in the pass band of sensitive ICs that require a clean spectrum from 12 kHz to 20 MHz offsets. In many cases, the noise is also unpredictable with frequencies and amplitudes of ripple that vary as the load varies (see figure 2). For this reason, it may be challenging to design power supply decoupling networks that effectively filter noise across the entire band.

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The challenges of designing low-jitter clocking are compounded by the power consumption requirements typically present in high bandwidth applications. Because advanced boards use a variety of high speed ICs including framers, mappers, processors, and FPGAs, they usually have complex power supply requirements with heavy load transitions. In these systems, the power supply rail is never entirely clean. High current requirements force system designers to use switching power supplies that generate noise. Often, the noise is broadband, ranging from 100 kHz to several megahertz, placing the noise in the pass band of sensitive ICs that require a clean spectrum from 12 kHz to 20 MHz offsets. In many cases, the noise is also unpredictable with frequencies and amplitudes of ripple that vary as the load varies (see figure 2). For this reason, it may be challenging to design power supply decoupling networks that effectively filter noise across the entire band.

As a first step in the Smart PV project, we have replaced these anti-parallel diodes with a smart bypass to reduce the power loss during partial shading. This smart bypass senses when the current through the cell is not matched with the current of the other cells (reducing the total output power) and activates an internal switch to redirect the load current. The power dissipated in this switch will only be a fraction of the power lost in the traditionally used diode. The smart bypass is completely independent and is powered by the surrounding solar cells. Once the switch is activated, the smart bypass will periodically check to see whether the cell has regained full functionality. If this is the case, the smart bypass deactivates and the solar cell can again add power to the system. If the cell is still in the shade, the switch stays activated.

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About the authors: Pieter Bauwens received his master’s degree and doctorate in electronic engineering from Ghent University in 2006 and 2010 respectively. He works at the Center for Microsystems Technology (Cmst), which is a research facility at Ghent University as well as an associated laboratory of imec. His main interest is the design of smart-power microsystems. He is the author or co-author of 11 papers in international technical journals and conference proceedings.

Jan Doutreloigne received his master’s degree and doctorate in electronic engineering from Ghent University in 1987 and 1992 respectively. He works at the Center for Microsystems Technology (Cmst), where he is in charge of a research team specialized in smart-power ASIC design and high-voltage device development. He is also a professor at Ghent University, teaching courses in the domain of microelectronics. He is the author or co-author of 120 papers in international technical journals and conference proceedings, and holds five patents.

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Bluetooth Smart and ZigBee will compete in a number of new and emerging markets, particularly connected home devices and wireless sensors, says a new report from ABI Research.

The key battlegrounds include remote controls, TVs and set top boxes in the home and wireless sensors for medical and health applications, sports and home automation.

exe_state <= ES_2;

when ES_2 =>

START_RD_RAM(R_ACC);// RAM access #2 phase 1

reg_op1 <= rom_data;// ROM access #1 phase 2

exe_state <= ES_3;// Next state

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