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Not all conformance needs are alike. ICAP evaluates the needs of the Alliance/Work Group and OEMs to determine which solution best fits the needs of the industry. Test solutions can range from an independently audited test suite to an interoperability plug-fest to a self-validation process. The key is applying a flexible approach around a rigorous framework, resulting in a valued certificate that carries the industry’s trust.

P0805H5004BB_Datasheet PDF

Not all conformance needs are alike. ICAP evaluates the needs of the Alliance/Work Group and OEMs to determine which solution best fits the needs of the industry. Test solutions can range from an independently audited test suite to an interoperability plug-fest to a self-validation process. The key is applying a flexible approach around a rigorous framework, resulting in a valued certificate that carries the industry’s trust.

About the author: Manuel Fendler , PhD, Sr. Expert, Semiconductor Packaging & Assembly, CEA-Leti

(Editor's note : Also of interest by this author are Risk management in batteries for medical (and other) applications; and Battery fuel gauge: factual or fallacy?” )

P0805H5004BB_Datasheet PDF

Wireless charging may one day replace plugs and wires similar to how Wi-Fi and Bluetooth have modernized personal communication. Wireless charging with inductive coupling uses an electromagnetic field that transfers energy from the transmitter to the receiver, and this technology is a suitable method to charge medical devices.

How does wireless charging relate to radio transmission? Both are similar in that they transmit power by electro-magnetic waves. Wireless charging operates in a near field condition in which the primary coil produces a magnetic field that’s picked up by the secondary coil in close proximity. The radio transmitter works on the far-field principle by sending waves that travel through space. While the receiving coil of the wireless charger captures most of the energy generated, the receiving antenna of the radio needs only a few microvolts to raise the signal above the noise level and receive clear intelligence when amplified.

Types of wireless charging Wireless charging is classified into three categories: 1) radio charging, 2) inductive charging, and 3) resonance charging.

P0805H5004BB_Datasheet PDF

Radio charging will serve low-power devices operating within a 10-m radius from the transmitter to charge batteries in medical implants, hearing aids, watches, and entertainment devices. Radio charging can also activate advanced RFID (radio-frequency identification) chips through resonantly enhanced induction. The transmitter sends a low-power radio wave at a frequency of 915 MHz (frequency for microwave ovens) and the receiver converts the signal to energy. The radio-charging method is closest to a regular radio transmitter; it offers high flexibility but has low power capture and exposes people to electro-smog.

Most of today’s wireless chargers use inductive charging, featuring a transmit coil and a receive coil in close proximity. Electric toothbrushes were one of the first devices to use this charging method, and mobile phones are the largest growing sector to charge without wires. To retrofit an existing mobile phone for mobile charging, simply attach a skin” that contains the receiver and provides interconnection to the charger socket. Many new devices will have this feature built in.

P0805H5004BB_Datasheet PDF

For larger batteries, such as those in electric vehicles (EVs), resonance charging, or electro dynamic induction, is being developed. Resonance charging works by making a coil ring. The oscillating magnetic field works within a 1-m radius; the distance between the transmit and receive coils must be well within the 1/4 wavelength (915 MHz has a wavelength of 0.328 m). Currently, resonance charging in trials can deliver about 3000 W at a transfer efficiency of 80% to 90%.

The success of wireless charging was subject to adapting a global standard, and the WPC (Wireless Power Consortium) accomplished this in 2008. With the Qi” norm, device manufacturers can now build charger platforms to serve a broad range of Qi-compatible devices. The first release limits the power to 5 W.

APIC said it has teamed with the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering in New York State (CNSE), with a plan to produce a fully manufacturable photonic chip based on the technology within two years.

We will now be able to use photons for many of the information functions that electrons have performed on silicon computer chips — drastically reducing their power consumption while supercharging performance,” said Dutt, in a statement. Photonics is naturally Green. Along with the energy savings, optical data communications networks provide massive increases in processor speed and computational capabilities,” he added.

APIC operates a wholly owned wafer fab in Honolulu, Hawaii, called Advanced Integration Photonics (AIP) that supplies foundry services in CMOS-compatible processes in silicon-on-insulator wafers.

Related links and articles:

www.apichip.com

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