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Micrel's MIC94060 is offered in SC70 package and MLF packages. The MIC94060 high-side power switch or load switch is used as a switch to enable or disable power to the load circuit. When the switch is enabled, the load gets powered; when the switch is disabled, the load does not get power. It is placed between a power source and the load circuit. The primary focus here is to characterize the thermal performance of MIC94060 in the SC70 package. A typical application of MIC94060 is shown in Figure 1 .

525R-02ILF_Datasheet PDF

Micrel's MIC94060 is offered in SC70 package and MLF packages. The MIC94060 high-side power switch or load switch is used as a switch to enable or disable power to the load circuit. When the switch is enabled, the load gets powered; when the switch is disabled, the load does not get power. It is placed between a power source and the load circuit. The primary focus here is to characterize the thermal performance of MIC94060 in the SC70 package. A typical application of MIC94060 is shown in Figure 1 .

Getting connected Of course, in order to execute the multitude of Rich Internet Applications, the car must be able to access the Internet. The availability of wireless connectivity varies by location and from country to country. The in-vehicle infotainment platform of tomorrow will need to access the Internet wirelessly in various ways. Wi-Fi (802.11) is a short-range wireless technology that allows the car to connect at the driver's home or in various hotspots”, locations where wireless access points are installed and available for public use.

525R-02ILF_Datasheet PDF

In addition to Wi-Fi, which requires the car to be within range of an access point, the car can be connected through various wireless WAN technologies such as a 3G data connection or Mobile WiMAX (World Interoperability for Microwave Access), based on IEEE standard 802.16. WiMax enables the vision of pervasive wireless technology by providing true broadband wireless speeds at a cost that enables mass adoption.

Mobile WiMAX is based on OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) technology which has inherent advantages in throughput, latency, spectral efficiency, and advanced antennae support; ultimately enabling it to provide higher performance than alternative wide area wireless technologies. Intel is delivering the key components needed for successful WiMAX networks, including the first fixed WiMAX solution (Intel' PRO/Wireless 5116 broadband interface), and a fixed/mobile dual-mode solution (Intel WiMAX Connection 2250). These innovations are helping to accelerate the deployment of mobile WiMAX networks.

Since the availability of wireless connectivity is unpredictable, the platform must be designed with the flexibility to support multiple wireless technologies using either plug in cards (through ExpressCard slots for example) or by using USB or Bluetooth* to connect through special-purpose network access devices.

525R-02ILF_Datasheet PDF

Conclusion In-vehicle infotainment systems need the flexibility to incorporate a wide range of leading-edge consumer applications as technologies improve. Intel is leading the shift to open platforms by working with leading automotive manufacturers and suppliers to create a scalable x86 platform that meets the specialized requirements of the automotive industry such as small form factors, energy-efficient performance and high reliability. Intel is also delivering key technology components such as WiMAX and Ultra-wideband, as well as technology improvements such as more efficient volatile and non-volatile memory technologies. With these innovations, the next generation of in-vehicle infotainment systems will have the ability to connect to the Web and have the flexibility to securely run rich Web-based applications and access Web-based content and services.

Intel is a trademark of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries.Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.

525R-02ILF_Datasheet PDF

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The Mobility Challenge Mobility is an important feature in cellular networks and in any wireless network. Hence, it has been a key design element and an integrated part of current cellular network architectures. However, this is not the case with IP networks, and hence mobility can be considered as one of the biggest challenges for IP. This is because IP was initially envisioned as a universal standard for connecting different hosts or computers for data communications. In spite of its great success, application of IP was limited to fixed or stationary hosts. Without support for mobility, the applicability of IP to cellular networks is quite limited and may result in wireless-specific solutions to handle mobility. GPRS is a perfect example on how mobility-unaware IP can be applied to wireless networks. Until recently, there was no initiative to enhanceIP to be mobility aware. Mobility in cellular networks is twofold:

When implemented with hardware blocks with performance as described earlier, this pipelined codec design can deliver minimum system delay as low as 10 macroblocks. Each accelerator has a guaranteed processing time of less than 1,000 coprocessor cycles, enabling small-slice capturing and processing. In a typical four-slice partition for a 720p30 video encoder, encoding delay (capturing, preprocessing and encoding) can be as low as 16 to 22 ms.

The better the analog front-end for measuring battery current, the more accurately you'll be able to gauge the remaining run-time for your battery-backup system.Here's a discrete front-end design that gets the job done.

How long will it run? When power fails, many home and commercial alarm systems go to a backup battery, most commonly a 12-volt sealed lead-acid type. If you're able to accurately sense the current draw, and the battery is well-characterized, you'll be able to accurately determine the amount of time remaining before your mission-critical system dies.

With careful design, you can measure battery current to within 0.2 percent of full scale. With that information, the most accurate gauging systems, taking battery age, temperature, self-discharge, and discharge-charge cycle history into account, can usually estimate remaining battery life to within 1 percent. The sealed lead-acid (SLA) batteries used in most backup systems specify between 250 and 1,000 full discharge-charge cycles over their service life, which can be as long as three to five years with good treatment. Home-alarm systems may draw as much as a few amperes, though 1 amp or less is common in today's typical system. An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for a single computer may draw 16 amps or more from the battery at full load. A network equipment rack filled with a large organization's switches and routers, plus built-in wireless and broadband modems may draw 50 amps or more. The system designer's end goal is to be able to accurately determine remaining battery life across a wide range of load demands.

Apart from its basic function, current-sensing circuitry is often part of a system for recharging the battery as fast as possible. Integrated solutions to this problem exist using such chips as Analog Devices' ADP3808 battery charger IC, which features both fast charge mode and float charge mode. Still, for flexibility and to maintain high accuracy up to 0.2 percent over temperature, a discrete solution is often preferable. Either way, the best estimate of remaining charge is obtained by active methods such as current sensing, and the more accurately you can do that, the more accurate the end result.

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