Initial field performance measurements of LTE,” Ericsson Review 3 2008. Accessed September 25, 2010. [6] Lopez, Alfred R., Harold A. Wheeler’s Antenna Design Legacy” May 2007 [7] Atis Technology Conference at SUPERCOMM 2009. Future Vision of Mobile Broadband.”  Accessed September 25, 2010.

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[1] Exabyte is equivalent to 1 million terabytes [2] NSN CEO Rajeev Suri briefing at the Mobile World Congress February 2010 [3] RTT, LTE User Equipment, network efficiency and value, 1st September 2010 [4] Navian Inc, Decade Forecast on Front End Modules 2010-2020, 11th August 2010 [5] Karlsson, Jonas and Mathias, Riback, Initial field performance measurements of LTE,” Ericsson Review 3 2008. Accessed September 25, 2010. [6] Lopez, Alfred R., Harold A. Wheeler’s Antenna Design Legacy” May 2007 [7] Atis Technology Conference at SUPERCOMM 2009. Future Vision of Mobile Broadband.”  Accessed September 25, 2010.

EV2018-ZD-00A_Datasheet PDF

[1] Exabyte is equivalent to 1 million terabytes [2] NSN CEO Rajeev Suri briefing at the Mobile World Congress February 2010 [3] RTT, LTE User Equipment, network efficiency and value, 1st September 2010 [4] Navian Inc, Decade Forecast on Front End Modules 2010-2020, 11th August 2010 [5] Karlsson, Jonas and Mathias, Riback, Initial field performance measurements of LTE,” Ericsson Review 3 2008. Accessed September 25, 2010. [6] Lopez, Alfred R., Harold A. Wheeler’s Antenna Design Legacy” May 2007 [7] Atis Technology Conference at SUPERCOMM 2009. Future Vision of Mobile Broadband.”  Accessed September 25, 2010.

While the solution of such simple circuits generally achieves little by reducing frequency content at some parts of the circuit, many circuits require one of their nonlinear parts to be simulated more accurately. MRhB does not force this local accuracy requirement to affect the simulation of other parts of the circuit, so if a frequency divider requires more than 2,000 harmonics for a single-tone analysis, it can be simulated locally with a large single-tone frequency set without detrimentally impacting the two-tone frequency set used in the same simulation for the mixer.

In short, MRhB presumes that by intelligently addressing the fact that dominating frequencies differ in the various parts of a circuit, it is possible to realize more efficient, yet highly accurate harmonic balance analysis of the entire circuit. This remarkable feat is accomplished while at the same time consuming less memory and less simulation time than traditional harmonic balance techniques.

EV2018-ZD-00A_Datasheet PDF

Follow this link to download the entire paper.

To improve fuel economy, more vehicle functions are being electrified, reducing the continuous load on the internal combustion engine. As the power load is shifted to the vehicle battery, keeping the battery charged and functioning correctly becomes ever more critical.

For the designer of automotive electrical systems, the battery sensor is a crucial component: it is used to provide state of charge, state of health and state of function readings via a LIN bus to the electrical system's Electronic Control Unit (ECU).

EV2018-ZD-00A_Datasheet PDF

Traditionally, a battery sensor is placed at the negative pole of the battery, where it measures low-side current, voltage and temperature. A battery sensor works by simultaneously capturing battery current and battery voltage values at a sampling rate of 1 kHz. Extreme accuracy is required for measurement of the state of charge, and to dynamically track battery impedance. Shunt-based low-side current sensing with a zero-offset high-precision measurement system operating in sync with a voltage sensing function provides the required accuracy at virtually zero insertion loss. It is suitable for the harsh automotive environment.

What if, however, the battery sensor was placed at the positive pole, operating as a high-side sensor? Vehicle designers would gain the ability to change and optimize control network topologies, for instance by using the battery sensor to measure various parts of the electrical supply system. It could also be combined with related modules, such as the power distribution box, and interfaced to a shared microcontroller, thus offering the potential to reduce Bill of Materials (BOM) costs. This would also support the trend to design vehicles with fewer, more centralized ECUs.

EV2018-ZD-00A_Datasheet PDF

It would theoretically be possible to move an existing low-side battery sensor over to the high side either by using a charge pump and level-shifting technique to raise the sensor's power supply to a level above the battery's 12V, or to use galvanically isolated power and digital communications components. The first approach, however, would be plagued by power pulses that would require sophisticated and difficult EMC counter-measures. The second would require the use of expensive isolated components that have reliability and power-consumption question marks against them.

Now, however, a new approach to automotive battery sensing developed by austriamicrosystems offers the possibility of implementing high-side battery sensing with the accuracy, precision and robustness required by vehicle manufacturers. It ensures highly accurate signal pick-up from a 100µ? shunt at the battery's high side to cover currents ranging from 1mA to more than 1kA with virtually no insertion loss. What is more, it enables stand-by current, voltage and temperature monitoring modes at very low current draw (around 80µA) – a crucial requirement in automotive battery sensors, which are never disconnected from the battery in normal operation.

Network Traffic Checklist

You can use the following Network Traffic checklist to determine if you have completed all the steps for characterizing network traffic:

Summary

This chapter provided techniques for analyzing network traffic caused by applications and protocols. The chapter discussed methods for identifying traffic sources and data stores, measuring traffic flow and load, documenting application and protocol usage, and evaluating QoS requirements.

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