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This effort is exacerbated by the fact that, in today's rush to market for new IC products, the specification is often simply the document used by the hardware designers in developing the circuit. This hardware design” specification document is generally written with little or no thought given to the use of the specification as a learning and reference tool. This leads to substantial inefficiencies in the firmware development process, causing longer development schedules, design oversights, and costly system failures in the lab and in released product.

SP2831-308-000-001_Datasheet PDF

This effort is exacerbated by the fact that, in today's rush to market for new IC products, the specification is often simply the document used by the hardware designers in developing the circuit. This hardware design” specification document is generally written with little or no thought given to the use of the specification as a learning and reference tool. This leads to substantial inefficiencies in the firmware development process, causing longer development schedules, design oversights, and costly system failures in the lab and in released product.

Simulation Example In these simulations, the peak bandwidth available at the outgoingtransmission link is equal to the PCR of the source. When theassigned bandwidth is equal to the PCR, as shown in Figures 3and 4 , the actual delay is less than the targeted delay, butthe actual CLR is close to zero. However, a large amount ofbandwidth is wasted, as shown in Figure 3 through thenegative prediction error, which implies that the PCR method isover-estimating the bandwidth. On the other hand, both adaptiveARMAX and NN methods more accurately predict the bandwidth requiredfor transmission. This has resulted in a low CLR and delay when thebuffer size is less than 250 cells. Given the ARMAX and NN methods,the one-layer NN appears to be more accurate than the adaptiveARMAX. Furthermore, when the buffer size is equal or greater than250 cells, both the ARMAX and NN methods render zero CLR and lowlatency, which satisfy the target QoS. Table 1 summarizesthe results when the buffer size is 250 cells for the MPEG data. Asexpected, the proposed scheme was able to estimate and assign thebandwidth according to the requirements for bursty MPEG data.

SP2831-308-000-001_Datasheet PDF

Figure 3:  Exponentially weighted moving averageprediction error

SP2831-308-000-001_Datasheet PDF

Figure 4:  Cell-loss ratio and latency for differentmethods

SP2831-308-000-001_Datasheet PDF

Table 1:  The actual and target QoS for theavailable bandwidth equal to PCR

In this article, we propose fully seamless handover/relocationmechanisms for conversational and streaming traffic in UMTSnetworks. By adapting and extending the UMTS data link protocolsGTP-U/PDCP/RLC, we could synchronize the new and old trafficstreams. Our mechanisms are based on existing basic UMTS inter-RNSprocedures and could be easily integrated into UMTS inter-RNS.

Figure 1 shows the protocol stacks of user planes forpacket-domain services in UMTS. The data-link layer is divided intothree sublayers:

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