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A hardware demonstration platform that utilizes a low cost Cyclone 3C25 FPGA shows a two channel TS-to-Ethernet and two channels for Ethernet-to-TS as shown in Figure 3 . The demonstration uses external SDRAM for the transmitter FEC packet buffering, the receiver payload, and FEC packet buffering. A Nios II embedded soft processor allows the user to write software to control and monitor the design operation. The ASI transport streams are feed into the two 75 ohm BNC connectors, where the FPGA carries out the conversion to an IP video packet for transmitting. On the receiving side, the incoming IP packet video data can be re-converted back to ASI transport streams and then routed out to the cable drivers as a transport stream output.

CRCW040212K1DKEDP_Datasheet PDF

A hardware demonstration platform that utilizes a low cost Cyclone 3C25 FPGA shows a two channel TS-to-Ethernet and two channels for Ethernet-to-TS as shown in Figure 3 . The demonstration uses external SDRAM for the transmitter FEC packet buffering, the receiver payload, and FEC packet buffering. A Nios II embedded soft processor allows the user to write software to control and monitor the design operation. The ASI transport streams are feed into the two 75 ohm BNC connectors, where the FPGA carries out the conversion to an IP video packet for transmitting. On the receiving side, the incoming IP packet video data can be re-converted back to ASI transport streams and then routed out to the cable drivers as a transport stream output.

These metrics will be designed to address the blurring of the lines between the IT equipment and facility infrastructure as discussed above. The Green Grid will look at these and other possible PUE-related metrics in the future.

Component efficiency standards The Green Grid will also work with the industry to define energy efficiency guidelines for all of the components in the datacenter. Such components include the following:

CRCW040212K1DKEDP_Datasheet PDF

This effort will require close collaboration with other industry bodies such as the American Society for Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).

Conclusion In addition to developing best practices, metrics, guidelines, and standards to help lower IT power consumption, The Green Grid also proposes defining metrics at the rack level as rack-level cooling solutions become more prominent. The group will also offer guidance for measuring both power consumption and useful work” at both the facility and rack levels, and will continue to provide technical updates as these metrics and measurement techniques evolve.

References 1. Patterson, M.K., Costello, D., Grimm P, Loeffler, M. (2007) Data Center TCO; A Comparison of High-density and Low-density Spaces,” THERMES 2007, Santa Fe, NM2. Malone, C., C. Belady. (2006) Metrics to Characterize Data Center & IT Equipment Energy Use,” Proceedings of 2006 Digital Power Forum, Richardson, TX. http://cool.rsn.hp.com/papers/200609%20DPF%20Final.pdft_parent 3. Rassmussen, N., Electrical Efficiency Modeling of Data Centers,” White Paper #113, APC. (2005). http://www.apcmedia.com/salestools/NRAN-66CK3D_R1_EN.pdf 4. Belady, C., How to Minimize Data Center Utility Bills,” Line 56. (September 5, 2006).” https://www.line56.com/articles/default.asp?ArticleID=7881 5. Greenberg, S., E. Mills, B. Tschudi, P. Rumsey, and B. Myatt. (2006). Best Practices for Data Centers: Results from Benchmarking 22 Data Centers.” Proceedings of the 2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. http://eetd.lbl.gov/emills/PUBS/PDF/ACEEE-datacenters.pdf 6. Patterson, M.K., Pratt, A., Kumar, P., From UPS to Silicon, an End-to-End Evaluation of Data Center Efficiency, Proceedings of the EPA Event: Enterprise Servers and Data Centers: Opportunities for Energy Savings.” (February 2006) http://www.energystar.gov/ia/products/downloads/MPatterson_APratt_Case_Study.pdf

CRCW040212K1DKEDP_Datasheet PDF

About The Green Grid The Green Grid is a non-profit trade organization of IT professionals formed to address the issues of power and cooling in datacenters. The Green Grid seeks to define best practices for optimizing the efficient consumption of power at the IT equipment and facility levels, as well as the manner in which cooling is delivered at these levels. The association is funded by four levels of membership, and activities are driven by end-user needs. The Green Grid does not endorse any vendor-specific products or solutions, but will seek to provide industry-wide recommendations on best practices, metrics, and technologies that will improve overall datacenter energy efficiencies. For more information on The Green Grid please go to:www.thegreengrid.org

This article presents two important DSP techniques, the overlap-add method , and FFT convolution . The overlap-add method is used to break long signals into smaller segments for easier processing. FFT convolution uses the overlap-add method together with the Fast Fourier Transform, allowing signals to be convolved by multiplying their frequency spectra. For filter kernels longer than about 64 points, FFT convolution is faster than standard convolution, while producing exactly the same result.

CRCW040212K1DKEDP_Datasheet PDF

The Overlap-Add Method There are many DSP applications where a long signal must be filtered in segments . For instance, high fidelity digital audio requires a data rate of about 5 Mbytes/min, while digital video requires about 500 Mbytes/min. With data rates this high, it is common for computers to have insufficient memory to simultaneously hold the entire signal to be processed. There are also systems that process segment-by-segment because they operate in real time . For example, telephone signals cannot be delayed by more than a few hundred milliseconds, limiting the amount of data that are available for processing at any one instant. In still other applications, the processing may require that the signal be segmented. An example is FFT convolution, the main topic of this article.

The overlap-add method is based on the fundamental technique in DSP: (1) decompose the signal into simple components, (2) process each of the components in some useful way, and (3) recombine the processed components into the final signal. Figure 18-1 shows an example of how this is done for the overlap-add method. Figure (a) is the signal to be filtered, while (b) shows the filter kernel to be used, a windowed-sinc low-pass filter. Jumping to the bottom of the figure, (i) shows the filtered signal, a smoothed version of (a). The key to this method is how the lengths of these signals are affected by the convolution. When an N sample signal is convolved with an M sample filter kernel, the output signal is N + M – 1 samples long. For instance, the input signal, (a), is 300 samples (running from 0 to 299), the filter kernel, (b), is 101 samples (running from 0 to 100), and the output signal, (i), is 400 samples (running from 0 to 399).

The real part consists of the cos-terms, the imaginary part of the sin-terms.

Because N/2 is the Nyquist frequency and the spectrum is symmetrical with respect to this frequency (see figures 3, 4, and 5), the spectral components have to be only determined for:

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