3. Be prepared to shift design and packaging based on need. One of the greatest benefits of design collaboration is the ability to spot a better method mid-project. For example, during discussions about how certain mica paper capacitors should be molded, collaborators might find that they need resistor, diodes and other components in the assembly. These parts must be factored into the calculations of what space is available for the capacitor.

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3. Be prepared to shift design and packaging based on need. One of the greatest benefits of design collaboration is the ability to spot a better method mid-project. For example, during discussions about how certain mica paper capacitors should be molded, collaborators might find that they need resistor, diodes and other components in the assembly. These parts must be factored into the calculations of what space is available for the capacitor.

85102E2221PW50_Datasheet PDF

3. Be prepared to shift design and packaging based on need. One of the greatest benefits of design collaboration is the ability to spot a better method mid-project. For example, during discussions about how certain mica paper capacitors should be molded, collaborators might find that they need resistor, diodes and other components in the assembly. These parts must be factored into the calculations of what space is available for the capacitor.

Choosing the CPRI line rate The basic frame structure in Figure 3 illustrates the amount of user plane data a particular line rate can carry. The following equation calculates how many data bits are available in a CPRI basic frame to carry IQ data:

The factor 15/16 accounts for the fact that out of the 16 words in a basic frame, 15 are data words. The factor 8/10 accounts for the 8B10B encoding that the CPRI specification requires in the Tx direction. Based on 8B10B, only 80% of the CPRI line capacity is used to transmit non-encoded data, with the other 20% being used on encoding redundancy.

85102E2221PW50_Datasheet PDF

Based on Equation (1), the number of IQ data bits per basic frame as a function of CPRI line rates is listed in Table 1.

The minimum CPRI line rate should be able to support a wireless system’s total bandwidth. That is, the amount of IQ data that comes across the CPRI link between the base station and the RRH during a 260.67ns period, must not exceed the number of IQ bits listed in Table 1for a given line rate.

The following example considers a single sector, mixed bandwidth LTE FDD system with two transmitting and two receiving antennas. Across a 20MHz allocated bandwidth per antenna, a 10MHz LTE carrier runs concurrently with two 5MHz LTE carriers.

85102E2221PW50_Datasheet PDF

In this example, a total of (1 + 2) x 2 = 6 antenna-carrier pairs, where the factor 2 is to account for 2 antennas on either the transmitting or the receiving side. Assume both I and Q data are 16-bit wide. The number of bits the 6 antenna-carrier pairs carry during a 260.67ns basic frame can be calculated as [Sample Rate (in MHz)/3.84] x 16 x 2 x [Number of AxCs].  In this example, total number of IQ bits from the application is:

30.72/3.84x32x2 + 7.68/3.84x32x4 = 768.

85102E2221PW50_Datasheet PDF

Compare 768 with the total number of IQ bits that a line rate supports shown in Table 1, where 4.9Gbps is the minimal line rate required for this application. Alternatively, multiple parallel CPRI links can be used to support high throughput high bandwidth applications. In most cases, however, having multiple parallel CPRI links complicates data path synchronization tasks in the actual implementation. It also requires multiple optical cables between REC and RE, which adds to the system setup and maintenance cost.

CPRI output data format Although different users may implement CPRI and subsequent DUC designs differently, it is common that a framer or data re-formatter is needed between CPRI and DUC modules. A DUC is designed to maximize hardware reuse due to its computation complexity. To share the multiplier resources efficiently in the FIR filter chain, the input multi-channel data to the DUC usually needs to be arranged in a certain pattern. The data pattern should allow AxCs to access the FPGA logic and multiplier resources in a time division multiplexing (TDM) fashion. The framer or format converter design depends on the CPRI output data format and required DUC input data format. It is commonly implemented using the FPGA on chip memory.

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AUTOSAR addressed those issues noted above via the following features:

Security in the automotive domain has gained increased importance through several factors. Third party services, Internet and the connected vehicle, to mention a few innovations, made the vehicle (at least partly) exposed and visible” to the outer world which requires a higher level of security. Future technological projections clearly show convergence between automotive electronics and personal computers or consumer electronics technology together with usage of IT standards and protocols. This leads to higher connectivity including always online,” and therefore requires more security.

The following examples illustrate the need for security features in the automobile:

With respect to security AUTOSAR has established the framework to embed a crypto module into the basic software which is called Crypto Service Manager (CSM). This module exposes an interface for security applications to allow for a generic access to standardized cryptographic routines, which provide means to restrict the access to certain functions or their usage to authorized users or callers, and to detect the unauthorized usage or access. It is located within the system services of the service layer. The CSM is configurable and has common access to cryptographic methods. Optionally there is support for cryptographic hardware.

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